Cysticercosis of Brain or Neurocysticercosis is most common parasitic infection of the brain or central nervous system worldwide and the most common cause of adult onset epilepsy. The cause of human cysticercosis is the larval form of Taenia solium (pork tapeworm).
Neurocysticercosis is more common in developing countries and is endemic in Mexico and Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, India, and East Asia. According to WHO data there are 2,000,000 cases of the diseases out of which 50-70% are asymptomatic while 10-30% are symptomatic with severe disability and mortality.
The disease is spread via the fecal-oral route through contaminated food and water, and is primarily a food borne disease. Patients get infected by eating undercooked pork that contains viable cysticerci. After ingestion the eggs pass through the lumen of the intestine into the tissues and migrate preferentially to the brain and muscles.
The progression of neurocysticercosis can be divided into four phases:
- Vesicular Phase is the initial phase where translucid membrane is viable with low inflammatory reaction. At this time patients is asymptomatic.
- Coloidal Phase, where the pathology manifest as membrane grows and parasite dies which leads to the degeneration of escolex. This condition causes severe inflammatory brain reaction resulting in seizures and comatose.
- Granular Phase, which marks by the complete degeneration of escolex and thick membrane. Severe gliosis – arachnoidits (a chronic diseases which is linked to HLA complex) reported in this phase.
- Calcified Phase, where the lesion get calcified without any inflammatory reaction. Resulting in gliosis which is the most common finding in asymptomatic population.
The pathology for neurocysticercosis involves many mechanisms such as development of hydrocephalous from granular ependimytis, vascular damage from arachnoidits, edema and reactive gliosis. NCC can be classified into two categories viz Active lesion and Inactive lesion. While classifying them, two main criteria must be followed:
- Inflammatory patterns in Cerebrospinal fluid.
- Evidence of viable lesion within the brain parenchyma in imaging studies (except for calcified lesion).
Treatment option for neurocysticercosis include the high drug dosage of Albendazole, Praziquantel, and Steroids such as prednisone ranging from 50mg/day in some cases for months.
Neurocysticercosis and Neuropsychiatric Problems
In a retrospective studies it is being found that a considerable number of patients develop Language dysfunction, gait apraxia, cognitive impairment, psychosis and in some cases mental disease as primary manifestation.
Before the advancement in the imaging techniques like Computerized Axial Tomography, the symptom based diagnosis is based upon number of factors viz. presence of (a) Dementia, Delirium, excitability, hallucinations; Confusion, delirium, excitability, visual and auditory hallucinations (b) Bonnet syndrome: complex visual hallucinations (c) judgment persists normal, severe confusion, stupor.
But there are more than hundred causes for dementia which include degenerative disorders, hereditary, vascular diseases and CNS infectious diseases. Hence dementia based diagnosis for neurocysticercosis is not very appropriate.
While over viewing the scenario of neuropsychiatry with context to neurocysticercosis, it has being found that about 87% patients suffer from cognitive disturbance while 15% patients develop severe cognitive abnormality. Also there are very few studies documented on the topic with limited sample size.
The aim of the current research should be in order to find the answer for questions like;
1. How many patients with NCC develop dementia?
2. What are the risk factors associated with NCC and dementia?
3. What is the outcome for patients with NCC + dementia after cysticide treatment?
4. To confirms the role of dementia in NCC with a large set of clinical data.
Sotelo J, & Del Brutto OH (2000). Brain cysticercosis. Archives of medical research, 31 (1), 3-14 PMID: 10767474
Del Brutto OH, & García HH (2012). Neurocysticercosis in Nonendemic Countries: Time for a Reappraisal. Neuroepidemiology, 39 (2), 145-146 PMID: 22922488
Tejado Lde A, Pozo KT, Palomino CB, & de Dios de Vega JL (2012). Psychiatric manifestations of neurocysticercosis in paediatric patients. BMJ case reports, 2012 PMID: 22892232