On average, 9.5/1000 population has epilepsy in Low and Middle Income Countries (LAMIC). A research which has resulted in the global campaign against epilepsy has shown, the gap between treatment need and the treatment provision worldwide is approximately 70% . This large ‘treatment gap’, i.e., lack of appropriate treatment for a large number of patients with epilepsy, due to a number of causes including inability to identify cases, inability to deliver adequate treatment, people’s attitudes and perception, availability of anti-epileptic drugs and finally, health policies of individual countries and the priority given to epilepsy. 
The first step towards narrowing the treatment gap is improving diagnosis. Clinical investigations that help in the diagnosis of epilepsy include electroencephalography (EEG), neuro-imaging techniques such as computed axial tomograpy (CT) and magentic resonance imaging (MRI). Simple blood tests, including haematological, liver and kidney function profiles can reveal treatable causes of epilepsy, such as parasitic infections. Neuropsychological evaluation identifies areas of function and dysfunction. Long term video monitoring can greatly improve the diagnosis of epilepsy. Therapeutic drug monitoring can ensure that patients are receiving optimal doses of medication and can help greatly in avoiding toxicity. However, the availability of investigative procedures varies greatly, from 82.4% for EEG, 70.5% for CT, 45% for therapeutic drug monitoring to only 20.6 % for MRI, 21.7% for long-term video monitoring and in LAMICs. Special investigations of brain function such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are not available in most LAMIC centres.
Epilepsy services in low and middle income countries are almost non-existent and service organization is a challenge. Epilepsy services should be community based and it is important to integrate these services into the primary health care structure to ensure sustainability. The Indian model is one such example, where epilepsy care has been incorporated into programmes for poverty alleviation . Public-private partnerships and non-governmental organizations (NGO) are also important components of the Indian model. 
The ultimate goal of all workers in the epilepsy field is to improve the quality of the life of people with epilepsy and their families. The prime manner in which this is aimed for is by the provision of good medical care.
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Mbuba CK, Ngugi AK, Newton CR, & Carter JA (2008). The epilepsy treatment gap in developing countries: a systematic review of the magnitude, causes, and intervention strategies. Epilepsia, 49 (9), 1491-503 PMID: 18557778